Volume 02 - Issue 05 (October 2018)


Title: Statistical Downscale climate change data from the HadCM3 models on precipitation for Iraq
Authors: Mustafa Al-Mukhtar, Mariam Qasim
Source: International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Management, pp 01 - 13, Vol 02 - No. 05, 2018
Abstract: For over three decades, Iraq has suffered from climate variability and desertification. Rainfall rates have decreased with abnormal high-temperature degrees, recurrence of dust storms has been increasing and many agricultural areas have turned into barren land. Future water availability is mainly influenced by the impacts of climate changes on meteorological data. Future climate projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs) presents averaged values in large scales. Therefore, downscaling techniques are usually needed to transfer GCM-derived climate outputs into station-based values. In this study, a statistical downscaling model is investigated and its applicability in generating daily precipitation series. The results presented in this report have indicated that it is feasible to link large-scale atmospheric variables by GCM simulations from Hadley Centre 3rd generation (HadCM3) outputs with daily precipitation at a local site. Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) was applied using three set of data; daily precipitation data for the period 1961-1990 and 1971-2000 corresponding to 12 stations located in Iraq. The future precipitation for 12 stations of Iraq were projected for three future periods 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s from the Hadley Centre Climate Model (HadCM3) under different scenarios (A2a and B2a) using statistical downscaling model (SDSM).The model was calibrated and validated against daily data by using 70% of the data for calibration, and the remaining 30% for validation. Thereafter, the calibrated model was applied to downscale future scenarios of HadCM3 predictors. The aim of this study is to test a commonly-used weather generator, namely SDSM, at 12 sites in Iraq and to generate the future projection of daily precipitation.
Keywords: Statistical downscaling; Projections; Precipitation; Iraq
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Title: Fire Safety Compliance in Public Senior High Schools within the Cape Coast Metropolis
Authors: Benjamin Boahene Akomah, Samuel Kotey
Source: International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Management, pp 14 - 25, Vol 02 - No. 05, 2018
Abstract: Over the past one and half decades, fire has razed down a number of Public Senior High School (PSHS) dormitories and school blocks in eight different regions, destroying valuable State’s assets and personal belongings of students worth millions of Ghana Cedis. The study objectives were to determine (1) the level of fire safety compliance in PSHS; and (2) the reasons for non- compliance with fire safety regulations in PSHS. Two different sets of populations were used. The first category comprised of head teachers while the second category covered physical structures made up of dormitories and kitchens. The census method was employed in the selection of both head teachers and physical structures. The study identified first class schools to be more compliant than second and third class schools when it comes to the provision of fire hydrants. It was discovered that none of the third class schools in the metropolis had fire hydrant. Lack of funds and high cost of fire safety equipment were identified to be the key reasons for non-compliance with fire safety. The minimum fire safety compliance level was established to be 0% with 40.0% being the maximum, which means some structures on PSHS campuses within Cape Coast are zero percent fire safety compliant.
Keywords: Fire Safety Compliance, PSHS, Bonferroni Multiple Comparisons, Cape Coast
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Title: Study on treatment of high ammonium concentration in piggery wastewater using rice husk biochar
Authors: Vu Ngoc Thuy, Pham Khanh Linh
Source: International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Management, pp 26 - 31, Vol 02 - No. 05, 2018
Abstract: The treatment of ammonia in water and wastewater has been receiving a lot of attention due to its harmful effects on the environment and water sources. There are many methods used to treat ammonium that have been extensively studied in recent years, including adsorption method. Materials that can adsorb ammonium in water and wastewater are numerous and varied, including natural materials and man-made materials. Currently, the tendency to use biodegradable materials as biological adsorbents are being emphasized. This study evaluates the ability of ammonium adsorption in wastewater using biochar made from rice husk. Initial research results showed that this material has good ammonium adsorption capacity, especially using modified biochar. The adsorption efficiency of biochar can be up to 92%, with an initial ammonia concentration of 200 mg/L and a solid/ liquid (S/L) ratio of 10 g/L, maximum adsorption capacity was 30 mg/g within contact time of 180 minutes. The research was applied on piggery wastewater after treatment using biogas tank with ammonium content of 150 mg/L also gave good results. The efficiency of ammonium treatment was 80% with a shaking time of 180 minutes, a solid / liquid ratio of 10 g/L. The advantage of using biochar was the ability to make use of cheap and easy-to-source materials. In addition, after adsorption, the adsorbed material can be used as a substrate for planting trees or fertilizers.
Keywords: ammonium removal, biochar, bio-adsorption, piggery wastewater, rice husk
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